» EU Study on Task Shifting
»Kilpatrick, K., Kaasalainen, S., Donald, F., et al. (2014):
“The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of clinical nurse specialists in outpatient roles: a systematic review.” J Eval Clin Pract 20(6): 1106-1123.
» Karimi-Shahanjarini, A., Shakibazadeh, E., Rashidian, A., et al. (2019):
“Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of doctor-nurse substitution strategies in primary care: a qualitative evidence synthesis.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4: Cd010412

» Laurant, M., Reeves, D., Hermens, R., et al. (2005):
“Substitution of doctors by nurses in primary care.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev(2): Cd001271

» Karam, M., Brault, I., Van Durme, T., et al. (2018):
“Comparing interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration in healthcare: A systematic review of the qualitative research.” Int J Nurs Stud 70-83. 

» Karacsony, S., Chang, E., Johnson, A., et al. (2015):
“Measuring nursing assistants’ knowledge, skills and attitudes in a palliative approach: A literature review.” Nurse Educ Today 35(12): 1232-1239. 

» Hurlock-Chorostecki, C., Forchuk, C., Orchard, C., et al. (2014):
“Hospital-based nurse practitioner roles and interprofessional practice: a scoping review.” Nurs Health Sci 16(3): 403-410. 

» Nahara A. Martínez-González, Ryan Tandjung, Sima Djalali Thomas Rosemann (2015): 

“The impact of physician–nurse task shifting in primary care on the course of disease: a systematic review.” Houman Resources for Health
» Siew Lian Leong, Siew Li Teoh, Weng Hong Fun, Shaun Wen Huey Lee (2021):
“Task shifting in primary care to tackle healthcare worker shortages: An umbrella review.”  European Journal of General Practice

» European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, editors: Claudia B. Maier, Marieke Kroezen, Reinhard Busse, Matthias Wismar (2022):

Skill-mix Innovation, Effectiveness and Implementation: Improving Primary and Chronic Care

» European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, editors: Irene Papanicolas, Dheepa Rajan, Marina Karanikolos, Agnes Soucat, Josep Figueras:

Health system performance assessment: a framework for policy analysis

» Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020):

Sharing and Shifting Tasks to Maintain Essential Healthcare During COVID-19 in Low Resource, non-US settings

» WHO (2023):
Strengthening the collection, analysis and use of health workforce data and information: a handbook

Useful videos

» European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies – “Rethinking Staff Shifting” Session of Summer School 2020

» European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies: Skill-mix for health system resilience: How can innovations foster integrated care?